Roast beets: Drizzle beets with a bit of olive oil and wrap in foil. Place on a baking sheet and bake until tender when poked with a fork, about 40 to 50 minutes (time varies based on beet size). Unwrap beets and let cool.
Cook lentils: Add lentils to a medium saucepan and cover with about 3-inches of water. Cover with a lid slightly ajar. Bring to a boil over medium-high heat, then reduce to a simmer. Cook until tender, about 20 minutes (be careful not to overcook). Drain lentils and transfer to a large bowl.
Mix Goat Cheese: In a small bowl, combine goat cheese, basil, chives, dill and salt. Mix thoroughly, then refrigerate until needed.
Make Dressing: Whisk together lemon juice, olive oil, honey , dijon mustard, white wine vinegar, salt and pepper.
Assemble: Use the edge of a spoon to scrape off the beet skins. Chop beets and add to lentils. Add the dressing and toss to coat. Add arugula, Chioggia beets, and crumble in goat cheese. Gently toss to mix. Season with salt and pepper, to taste.
Chioggia beet substitute: If you can't find Chioggia beets, substitute with red or golden beets. If you have a mandolin use it, otherwise slice the raw beets with a knife as thin as possible.
Make ahead option: Make the roasted beets, lentils, herbed goat cheese, and dressing in advance. Cover separately and refrigerate. Slice the fresh beets and combine right before serving.
Storage tip: If you think you'll have leftovers, keep the arugula separate, since it'll wilt after sitting overnight in dressing.